John G. Webster (Editor) 's 45.Plasma Science PDF

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Note that since the system is in a medium the Coulomb potential have to be changed to e e → r r (18) where ⑀ is the dielectric constant of the material. We will now consider the ionization of a neutral impurity in a graphical way: I 0 → I + + e− for a donor and I 0 → I − + e+ for an acceptor (19) 419 with I0 the neutral impurity. The donor ionization reaction corresponds to an emission of an electron to the conduction band and the acceptor ionization reaction to an emission of a hole to the valence band, which is equivalently described by the capture of an electron from the valence band.

An example is shown in Fig. 1. The total potential Vt has a saddle point for x ϭ 0 ϭ y, z ϭ ͙q/F and here the potential energy takes the value Vs ϭ Ϫ2q͙ZqF. Moreover, for Z ϭ 1 the contribution to the potential energy of the two fields is identical (see Fig. 1). A classical electron will be bound for energies smaller the saddle-point energy Vs inside the potential walls as the walls are impenetrable barriers. As suggested first in 1928 by Oppenheimer (1) the application of electric fields enables bound electrons to escape by tunneling in a process called field ionization.

Stark effects are not only due to external electric fields. Atomic beams with the beam direction not in coincidence with the magnetic field axis of an external magnetic field give rise to the so-called motional Stark effect. In external magnetic fields the center-of-mass coordinate is no longer separable from the relative coordinate and hence in the Schro¨dinger equation of the relative coordinates an additional potentiallike term occurs, which depends linearly on the relative coordinates and on the wedge product of the magnetic field with the center-of-mass momentum.

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45.Plasma Science by John G. Webster (Editor)


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